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Table 3

Installed power of the adapted “4-machine” and initial load flow.

  GEN_A1 GEN_A2 GEN_B1 GEN_B2 Gen_Stat Load A Load B
Source type Thermal Nuclear Hydraulic Nuclear RES farm
Installed capacity 810 MW 810 MW 810 MW 810 MW 400 MW
Load flow 276 MW* 700 MW 720 MW 700 MW 400 MW** 967 MW 1767 MW

* The thermal machine GEN_A1 is the reference machine, its initial power (load flow) depends on the initial power of the added RES source as well as on the load demand. The power of the reference machine, called slack bus, in a load flow program must compensate for the gap between the power demand and the power supply by the other generators (nuclear, hydraulic and RES), taking into account the losses on the network. In reality, several machines adapt their production to avoid a possible overproduction/underproduction on the grid (it is indeed the primary frequency control, which is modelled by a slack bus).

** More explanations on the 400 MW RES power value are given in Section 3.3.2. It can be noticed that the total of load consumption differs from the total production of 59 MW due to the losses in the grid (power lines hundreds kilometres long and presence of transformers).

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